Calvin College in *The Atlantic*

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Calvin College, a Christian liberal arts college in Grand Rapids, Michigan, has been getting a lot of attention lately since one of its alums, Betsy DeVos, became Secretary of Education. (I should add that DeVos is not the only Christian college graduate to serve as the country’s chief education officer.  Ernest Boyer, a graduate of Messiah College, was Jimmy Carter’s Commissioner of Education).  Calvin is affiliated with the Christian Reformed Church, a Protestant denomination founded by Dutch Calvinists.

Since Donald Trump picked DeVos, pundits have been trying to make sense of her connection to the Christian Reformed Church and Calvin College.  Some of the attempts at understanding her religious background have been more successful than others.  I still think Abram Van Engen’s piece at Religion & Politics is the best.  His piece is followed closely by Sarah Pulliam Bailey’s article in The Washington Post.

The third best thing I have read on Calvin and DeVos is Emily Deruy’s piece at today’s Atlantic.  Deruy’s essay treats Calvin fairly and does a good job of explaining the school to the left-of-center, upper-middle class, educated readership of the Atlantic. 

Here is a taste:

In more than a dozen interviews, professors, students, and alumni of all political stripes painted a picture of a college where intellectual diversity and thought-provoking debate are the norm, and where the belief that followers of the Christian Reformed Church, with which the school is affiliated, have an obligation to engage with the world around them compels both instructors and students to question what they think they know.

“Our faith commits us to engaging the world all around us,” said Kevin den Dulk, a political-science professor who graduated from Calvin in the 1990s, during an interview in the DeVos Communication Center, which sits across from the Prince Conference Center bearing the secretary’s maiden name. (Her mother, Elsa, is also an alum.)

Den Dulk’s words aren’t just PR fluff; it’s a concept borne out by the school’s 141-year history and the Dutch-influenced part of western Michigan it calls home. The Christian Reformed Church is a Protestant tradition that has its roots in the Netherlands and has been deeply influenced by the theologian Abraham Kuyper, a believer in intellectualism—specifically the idea that groups with different beliefs can operate in the same space according to their convictions while respecting and understanding others. “Fundamentalism is really anti-intellectual and Calvin is the exact opposite,” said Alan Wolfe, the author of a 2000 Atlantic piece about efforts to revitalize evangelical Christian colleges.

Read the entire piece here.

The Author’s Corner with Willem Klooster

thedutchmomentWillem Klooster is Professor and Chair of the Department of History at Clark University. This interview is based on his new book, The Dutch Moment: War, Trade, and Settlement in the Seventeenth-Century Atlantic World (Cornell University Press, 2016).

JF: What led you to write The Dutch Moment?

WK: As a Dutchman working on the Atlantic world, it has always been obvious to me that a book focused on the Dutch Atlantic in the seventeenth century – the period in which the Dutch were so active worldwide both militarily and commercially – was missing. Dutch historians dealing with the wider world have traditionally privileged Asia, the domain of the Dutch East India Company, while North Americans have been mostly interested in New Netherland, which was actually fairly marginal to the main developments in the Dutch Atlantic. I felt that it was my task to right this wrong by writing a work that encompassed all aspects of the Dutch Atlantic in that century without making it a textbook.

JF:  In 2 sentences, what is the argument of The Dutch Moment?

WK: In 3 sentences, if you don’t mind: The mid-seventeenth century formed a specific stage in Atlantic history that was marked by activities that connected the Dutch to other colonial realms, especially the infant English and French colonies that remained afloat in no small part due to Dutch commercial assistance. On the other hand the Dutch Atlantic had a distinctly violent side, as expressed in the endless battles with their Iberian enemies and Dutch relations with indigenous Americans and enslaved Africans. What helped undo the short-lived Dutch empire was not only Iberian fighting power or nonwhite revolts, but eventually the refusal of unpaid and poorly fed white soldiers and sailors in Dutch service to defend the imperial outposts.

JF: Why do we need to read The Dutch Moment?

WK: By following the Dutch around in the Atlantic basin, we get a new perspective on the Atlantic world at large, and not a peripheral one, since the Dutch were so entangled with other empires, either as warriors or merchants. More particularly, the book reveals the pivotal role of Brazil, where the Dutch elites were willing to wage a seemingly endless war in order to control the production of the world’s foremost sugar colony. This war was the largest conflict between European powers in the seventeenth-century Atlantic, which historians have underappreciated.

JF: When and why did you decide to become an American historian?

WK: Although my Leiden dissertation dealt with Dutch trade in the Caribbean, it was not a traditional treatment of the flow of goods between colonies and metropole. Both the Dutch and Spanish archives suggested the existence of close, albeit usually illegal, commercial ties between inhabitants of the Dutch colonies and residents of other empires. I had therefore come to see my subject matter through an Atlantic lens by the time I finished my doctorate in 1995. That same year, I came to the United States as a Fulbright student, and soon found myself in the orbit of Bernard Bailyn, precisely when he started to organize his Atlantic History Seminars. I still think of myself primarily as an Atlanticist rather than an American historian.

JF: What is your next project?

WK: The next project is already finished: I just submitted the manuscript of The Second Dutch Atlantic, 1680-1815, a book that I coauthored with Dutch historian Gert Oostindie. It picks up where The Dutch Moment leaves off, taking the story of the Dutch Atlantic through the early nineteenth century. During my sabbatical next semester, I will embark on the following project, a biography of a well-traveled French marquis whose life intersects with the Age of Revolutions in surprising ways.

JF: Thanks, Willem!

New Netherland Institute Comes to New Jersey

dutchNew Brunswick Theological Seminary in New Brunswick, NJ is hosting the 39th Annual Conference of the New Netherland Institute.  The topic is “From Pavonia to the Garden State: New Jersey”s Dutch Past.”  Speakers include Elizabeth Bradley, Willem Klooster, Evan Haefeli, Daniel Richter, Dirk Mouw, Liz Covart, Deborah Hamer, and Jaap Jacobs.

Here is what you can expect:

The conference and its companion events will take place over three days, beginning on Thursday the 22nd of September and concluding on Saturday the 24th. Friday morning’s session will explore the trials and tribulations of the early years of Dutch colonization in the region, with the afternoon session exploring the survival of Dutch heritage in New Jersey following the final transfer to the English. The program will be enriched with two additional sessions on Saturday morning, beginning with a panel discussion with NNI’s Emerging Scholars on their decision to study New Netherland. The morning will conclude with an edifying session on Dutch fortifications in New Netherland. Friday night’s dinner will feature a talk by Elizabeth Bradley, the author of Knickerbocker: The Myth Behind New York, a cultural history of New York’s first mascot.

Learn more here.

The Colonial History of My Home Town

Growing up in Montville, New Jersey I never knew (and probably didn’t care) that there were so many 18th-century Dutch houses in town. A recent article on the subject at the Alternative Press includes a few quotes from my freshman lacrosse coach, Michael O’Brien.  Here is a taste:

MONTVILLE, NJ – Perhaps you knew that Montville has more than fifteen Dutch stone houses dating back to the 1700s. Perhaps you knew that only three states have them – New York, Delaware and New Jersey. But did you know that the Dutch people didn’t build them in their own country, because there was not enough stone, which makes them unique to the world?
 
Montville Township Historical Society President Kathy Fisher has a lot to say about Dutch stone houses.
 
“They would always build them a certain way,” states Fisher. “They would be built to face the south so they would stay warm naturally. There was not a lot of wasted space; for example, the entrance to the house was into a room, not a hallway, in order to be efficient. And Montville is very lucky to have so many!”

Donna Merwick, Peter Stuyvesant, and the Past is a Foreign Country

James Blackburn has written an excellent review of Donna Merwick’s new book Stuyvesant Bound: An Essay on Loss Across Time.  What most captivated me about this review (and by extension Merwick’s book, which I now want to read) is the way Blackburn focuses his review on Merwick’s attempt to teach us something about historical thinking.  Here is a taste:

The nation or country, what entity is of more importance to modern society?  What about capitalistic economy, secularization, democracy, and progress as normative American values.  All hold sway, for better or worse, on our perceptions of the world and our place within it.  And it is from this vantage point in modernity that we look towards the actions of those who lived before us, reaching back through time to filter the past through the eyes of the present.  This is history, and this is why the practice of history is an art and not a science. It is imperfect, an extension of the historian and the times in which they live.

But how then, asks Donna Merwick in Stuyvesant Bound: An Essay on Loss Across Time (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013), can we better understand Peter Stuyvesant from our vantage point in the modern world, back to one that was premodern and existed between the post-Reformation and pre-Enlightenment periods.  A world in which the United States of America cannot be predicted or imagined, though the history written about Colonial America often chooses a narrative that fits into a story of nationalistic genesis.

A creation story that makes the founding of America seem both inevitable and secularly divine.  The histories of nations are filled with their own deities, prophets, and sacred texts.  In America, one has to look no farther than the Founding Fathers and the Constitution.  All this, a historian must weed through to find the North America of the seventeenth century in which the colony of New Netherlands existed, and where Peter Stuyvesant acted as Director-Governor for some seventeen years.  It is this place and time outside the confines of the nation state in which Merwick takes us.

New Issue of Early American Studies is Here

The new issue of Early American Studies is focused on “Anglo-Dutch Revolutions” in early America.  Here is the Table of Contents:
Anglo-Dutch Revolutions
Edited by Nathan Perl-Rosenthal and Evan Haefeli

Introduction: Transnational Connections
Nathan Perl-Rosenthal and Evan Haefeli

‘‘That Abominable Nest of Pirates’’: St. Eustatius and the North Americans,1680–1780
Victor Enthoven

Dutch-Irish Cooperation in the Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wartime Atlantic
Thomas M. Truxes

Did Dutch Smugglers Provoke the Boston Tea Party?
Benjamin L. Carp

A Tale of Three Patriots in a Revolutionary World: Theophile Cazenove, Jacques-Pierre Brissot, and Joel Barlow (1788–1811)
Annie Jourdan

No Extended Sphere: The Batavian Understanding of the American Constitution and the Problem of Faction
Joris Oddens

Conversations with the Classics: Ancient Political Virtue and Two Modern Revolutions
Wyger R. E. Velema